If by Communism you mean the sense in which it’s used politically and socioeconomically in this present day, then the answer is no.
Many have tried to push a Communist agenda in times past by trying to validate it through scripture:
Acts 2:43-46 – “And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles. And all that believed were together, and had all things common; And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need. And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart…”
Acts 4:34-35 – “Neither was there any among them that lacked: for as many as were possessors of lands or houses sold them, and brought the prices of the things that were sold, And laid them down at the apostles’ feet: and distribution was made unto every man according as he had need.”
What occurred here and the modern theory of Communism are two very different breeds of cat! Here we see no compulsion to do these wonderful, charitable deeds other than that which sprang from hearts lit afire by the Holy Ghost. Nowhere in these contexts do we see the apostles hammering the hearers with obligation to do so. Nowhere here do we read of the apostles shaming the congregation for their wealth or breathing out threats if the “Communist” ideals are not adhered to. This seemed obviously to be a spontaneous outpouring of agape love through a special manifestation of the Spirit.
One may retort, “But, Annanias and Saphirra lost their lives by not adhering.” (Acts 5:1-11). This is not so. True enough, they lost their lives, but not because of denying the “Communist” ideal. They lost their lives as judgment for greedily breaking the vows they had made unto God. What seems obviously to have transpired here is they vowed in the Holy Ghost to sell a possession and give the money to the collection (“…why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land?”). They were not condemned by Peter for denying the “Communist” ideal, but for lying to God because of greed. This was worthy of death then as it is now. Thanks be unto God for his longsuffering towards us all.
You see, compared to the totalitarian, oppressive regimes under the Communist banner today, this is a no-brainer. How long do you think China’s present regime would stand if they ceased all violence and threats and allowed the people to decide according to their hearts whether or not they are willing to have ALL their possessions be at the disposal of the government? The USSR had to build walls and license a vicious entity called the KGB to enforce the Communist ideal. The North Korean regime has been pleased to murder and starve its “comrades” for generations to keep the government in total control.
Legal taxation is a far cry from totalitarian control of all goods. We are compelled to pay our taxes. Jesus verified that this is not immoral or unjust in Matthew 22:15-22. While we as Christians are to be willing to respect the powers that be, nowhere included in this command of Jesus to “render therefore unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s” is the notion that Caesar (the government) is due to all our money and goods. The Mosaic Law, which Paul stated was “holy, and just, and good”, carefully laid out the concept of protection of individual rights of possession and ownership (see Exodus 22:1-15 for just one example). In Hebrews 10:34, the inspired writer (whom I personally believe to be Paul) wrote that the Hebrew brethren “took joyfully” the spoiling of their goods. However, this in no way should be taken to believe that the spoiling of their goods was just, but that they had responded to a dreadful situation with faith and boldness.
The New Testament scriptures teach the proper usage of the members’ monies for the care of the church politic. Our possessions are not alluded to in scripture as a common trough at which to feed indiscriminately, or all in common. Very distinct guidelines were given by Paul unto Timothy for the proper support of widows (1 Timothy 5:1-16). The present day ideas of “give us a big pool of money that we can dole out”, bread lines, and soup kitchens are foreign to the Bible. Not just any widow could receive the support. It was giving with discernment. The command of Paul to the church at Thessalonica was “if any would not work, neither should he eat” (2 Thessalonians 3:10). The people in the church then, as now, have the right to feel assured that their money will not be squandered, but given with discrimination. 2 Corinthians 9:7 teaches of giving – “Every man according, as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.” Certainly, we see here advocated the rights of the possessor to do with his own as he sees fit. The Communist notion has to be propped up with “all things common” without private ownership and rights.
In conclusion, it is obvious that the teachings of Christianity are incompatible with Communist governments. History has proven that for a regime to maintain control of goods, they must also maintain control of the mindset. All free thought and expression must be squashed. The convictions of the soul must not interfere with the agenda of the “body politic”. A Communist regime can’t have a gospel that teaches, “(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds). Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of god, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ” (2 Corinthians 10:5). May the Lord bless us to be free to give with discernment, enjoy the fruits of His provision, worship with unhindered conviction, and protect the ideals that free men everywhere hold dear!